Short Story

Lazy Jack

 Once upon a time there was a boy whose name was Jack, and he lived with his mother on a common. They were very poor, and the old woman got her living by spinning, but Jack was so lazy that he would do nothing but bask in the sun in the hot weather, and sit by the corner of the hearth in the winter-time. So they called him Lazy Jack. His mother could not get him to do anything for her, and at last told him, one Monday, that if he did not begin to work for his porridge she would turn him out to get his living as he could.

This roused Jack, and he went out and hired himself for the next day to a neighbouring farmer for a penny; but as he was coming home, never having had any money before, he lost it in passing over a brook. “You stupid boy,” said his mother, “you should have put it in your pocket.” “I’ll do so another time,” replied Jack.

On Wednesday, Jack went out again and hired himself to a cow-keeper, who gave him a jar of milk for his day’s work. Jack took the jar and put it into the large pocket of his jacket, spilling it all, long before he got home. “Dear me!” said the old woman; “you should have carried it on your head.” “I’ll do so another time,” said Jack.

So on Thursday, Jack hired himself again to a farmer, who agreed to give him a cream cheese for his services. In the evening Jack took the cheese, and went home with it on his head. By the time he got home the cheese was all spoilt, part of it being lost, and part matted with his hair. “You stupid lout,” said his mother, “you should have carried it very carefully in your hands.” “I’ll do so another time,” replied Jack.

On Friday, Lazy Jack again went out, and hired himself to a baker, who would give him nothing for his work but a large tom-cat. Jack took the cat, and began carrying it very carefully in his hands, but in a short time pussy scratched him so much that he was compelled to let it go. When he got home, his mother said to him, “You silly fellow, you should have tied it with a string, and dragged it along after you.” “I’ll do so another time,” said Jack.

So on Saturday, Jack hired himself to a butcher, who rewarded him by the handsome present of a shoulder of mutton. Jack took the mutton, tied it to a string, and trailed it along after him in the dirt, so that by the time he had got home the meat was completely spoilt. His mother was this time quite out of patience with him, for the next day was Sunday, and she was obliged to make do with cabbage for her dinner. “You ninney-hammer,” said she to her son; “you should have carried it on your shoulder.” “I’ll do so another time,” replied Jack.

On the next Monday, Lazy Jack went once more, and hired himself to a cattle-keeper, who gave him a donkey for his trouble. Jack found it hard to hoist the donkey on his shoulders, but at last he did it, and began walking slowly home with his prize. Now it happened that in the course of his journey there lived a rich man with his only daughter, a beautiful girl, but deaf and dumb. Now she had never laughed in her life, and the doctors said she would never speak till somebody made her laugh. This young lady happened to be looking out of the window when Jack was passing with the donkey on his shoulders, with the legs sticking up in the air, and the sight was so comical and strange that she burst out into a great fit of laughter, and immediately recovered her speech and hearing. Her father was overjoyed, and fulfilled his promise by marrying her to Lazy Jack, who was thus made a rich gentleman. They lived in a large house, and Jack’s mother lived with them in great happiness until she died.

Source : http://www.kidsgen.com/fables_and_fairytales/lazy_jack.htm

Jack Malas

Alkisah ada seorang laki-laki yang bernama Jack, dan dia tinggal dengan ibunya di umum. Mereka sangat miskin, dan wanita tua mendapat hidup Nya oleh berputar, tapi Jack sudah sangat malas bahwa dia tidak tapi berjemur di matahari dalam cuaca panas, dan duduk dengan sudut perapian di musim dingin. Jadi mereka memanggilnya malas Jack. Ibunya tidak bisa mendapatkan dia untuk melakukan apa saja untuknya, dan pada akhirnya kepadanya satu Senin, bahwa jika ia tidak dimulai bekerja untuk bubur nya dia ternyata dia untuk mendapatkan dalam hidup yang dia bisa.

 Ini membangkitkan Jack, dan ia pergi dan Disewa dirinya untuk hari berikutnya untuk petani tetangga sedinar. tetapi karena ia datang rumah, tidak pernah mempunyai uang sebelumnya, ia hilang dalam melewati sungai. “Anda bodoh boy,” kata ibunya, “Anda harus memasukkannya ke dalam saku Anda.” “Aku akan melakukan begitu lain waktu,” jawab Jack.

Pada hari Rabu, Jack keluar lagi dan Disewa dirinya untuk sapi-penjaga, yang memberinya sebotol susu untuk pekerjaan hari-nya. Jack mengambil jar dan memasukkannya ke dalam saku besar jaket, menumpahkan semua itu, lama sebelum dia pulang. “Dear saya!” kata perempuan tua; “Anda harus telah melakukan itu di kepala Anda.” “Aku akan melakukan jadi lain kali,” kata Jack.

Maka pada hari Kamis, Jack dipekerjakan dirinya lagi untuk seorang petani yang setuju untuk memberikan Yudas krim keju untuk jasanya. Di malam hari Jack mengambil keju, dan pulang dengan itu di kepalanya. Pada saat dia pulang keju adalah manja, Bagian itu hilang, dan bagian kusut dengan rambutnya. “Anda bodoh udik,” kata ibunya, “Anda harus telah dilakukan sangat hati-hati di tangan Anda.” “Aku akan melakukan begitu lain waktu,” jawab Jack.

Pada hari Jumat, Jack malas lagi keluar, dan dipekerjakan dirinya untuk baker, yang akan memberikan apa-apa untuk karyanya tapi tom-kucing besar. Jack mengambil kucing, dan mulai membawa sangat hati-hati di tangannya, tetapi dalam waktu yang singkat vagina tergores dia begitu banyak bahwa ia dipaksa untuk membiarkannya pergi. Ketika ia tiba rumah, ibunya berkata kepadanya, “Anda konyol sesama, Anda harus telah diikat dengan tali, dan menyeret setelah Anda. “Aku akan melakukan jadi lain kali,” kata Jack.

Jadi pada hari Sabtu, Jack dipekerjakan dirinya untuk tukang daging, yang dihargai dia dengan tampan bahu dari kambing. Jack mengambil kambing, terikat string, dan membuntuti setelah dia di tanah, sehingga pada saat ia telah pulang daging benar-benar berlebihan. Ibunya adalah saat ini cukup dari kesabaran dengan dia, untuk selanjutnya hari adalah hari Minggu, dan ia terpaksa harus membuat hubungannya dengan kubis untuk makan malam nya. “Anda ninney-palu,” kata dia kepada putra-Nya; “Anda harus telah melakukan itu di bahu Anda.” “Aku akan melakukan begitu lain waktu,” jawab Jack.

 Pada Senin depan, malas Jack pergi sekali lagi, dan dipekerjakan dirinya untuk sapi-penjaga, yang memberinya keledai untuk masalah. Jack merasa sulit untuk mengibarkan keledai di atas bahunya, tetapi pada akhirnya ia melakukannya, dan mulai berjalan perlahan-lahan pulang dengan hadiah. Sekarang itu terjadi bahwa dalam perjalanannya sana tinggal seorang kaya dengan putrinya hanya, gadis cantik, tapi tuli dan bisu. Sekarang ia telah pernah tertawa dalam hidupnya, dan dokter mengatakan dia akan pernah berbicara sampai seseorang membuat dirinya tertawa. Wanita muda ini kebetulan melihat keluar dari jendela ketika Jack melewati dengan keledai di atas bahunya, dengan kaki-kaki yang mencuat di udara, dan pemandangan itu begitu lucu dan aneh bahwa dia meledak ke yang cocok tawa, dan segera pulih nya pidato dan pendengaran. Ayahnya sangat gembira, dan menggenapi janji oleh menikahinya ke Jack malas, yang dengan demikian menjadi seorang pria kaya. Mereka tinggal di sebuah rumah besar, dan Jack’s Ibu tinggal dengan mereka dalam kebahagiaan besar sampai ia meninggal.

Source : http://www.bing.com/Translator

 

Terjemahan sendiri.

Si Pemalas Jack

Pada jaman dahulu kala ada seorang anak yang bernama Jack, dan sehari-hari ia tinggal bersama ibunya. Mereka sangat miskin, ibunya mencari nafkah dengan berbagai cara, tapi Jack sangat malas, ia tidak melakukan apa-apa selain berjemur dibawah matahari pada saat cuaca panas, dan duduk di sudut perapian pada saat musim dingin. Jadi mereka memanggilnya dengan sebutan Lazy Jack. Ibunya tidak dapat bantuan dalam melakukan apapun, dan sang ibu mengatakan kepadanya pada hari Senin, bahwa jika ia tidak memulai membuat bubur untuk dirinya sendiri sang ibu akan mengubah jack agar mau keluar untuk mencari nafkah sebisanya.

Ini membangkitkan Jack, dan ia pun pergi keluar dan petani tetangga menyewa dirinya untuk bekerja esok hari dengan bayaran satu sen; ketika ia hendak pulang, dan tidak pernah punya uang sebelumnya, dia kehilangan uang tersebut ketika melewati sungai. “Kau anak bodoh,” kata ibunya, “kamu seharusnya memasukkannya ke dalam saku mu.” “Saya akan melakukannya lain kali,” jawab Jack.

Pada hari Rabu, Jack keluar lagi dan ia disewa untuk menjadi sapi-penjaga, ia dibayar dengan sebotol susu. Jack mengambil botol tersebut dan memasukkannya ke dalam saku besar di jaketnya, semuanya tumpah, jauh sebelum ia sampai rumah. “Untuk aku!” kata wanita tua; “kamu seharusnya menaruh ini diatas kepala.” “Saya akan melakukannya lain kali,” kata Jack.

lalu pada hari Kamis, Jack di sewa lagi untuk petani, dengan imbalan diberikan krim keju. Pada sore hari Jack mendapatkan kejunya, dan pulang dengan menaruhnya di kepala. Pada saat ia sampai di rumah semua keju itu meleleh, sebagian hilang, dan sebagian lagi kusut di rambutnya. “Kau orang udik bodoh,” kata ibunya, “kamu seharusnya membawa itu ditangan dengan sangat hati-hati.” “Saya akan melakukannya lain kali,” jawab Jack.

Pada hari Jumat, Lazy Jack pergi keluar lagi, dan dirinya disewa untuk menjadi tukang roti, ia tidak dibayar dengan apa-apa untuk pekerjaanya hanya saja diberikan seekor kucing tom besar. Jack mengambil kucing tersebut, dan mulai membawanya dengan sangat hati-hati di tangannya, tetapi tidak lama kemudian tangannya dicakar habis-habisan dan terpaksa jack membiarkannya pergi. Ketika ia sampai di rumah, ibunya berkata kepadanya, “Kamu konyol, seharusnya kamu mengikat kucing itu dengan tali, dan menyeretnya setelah mu.” “Saya akan melakukannya lain kali,” kata Jack.

Lalu pada hari Sabtu, Jack disewa untuk menjadi tukang daging, ia mendapatkan daging kambing sebagai imbalan pekerjaannya. Jack mengambil daging kambing tersebut, lalu mengikatnya dengan tali, dan menyeretnya ditanah, dan ketika sampai di rumah dagingnya hilang. Kali ini ibunya sudah cukup sabaran menghadapinya, untuk hari berikutnya, Minggu, dan ia wajib membuat hidangan kubis untuk makan malam merekaa. ” You ninney-hammer,” katanya kepada anaknya; “kamu harus membawanya di bahumu.” “Saya akan melakukannya lain kali,” jawab Jack.

Pada Senin depan, Si Pemalas Jack pergi sekali lagi, dan disewa untuk jadi penjaga ternak, ia diberikan seekor keledai sebagai imbalah jerih payahnya. Jack merasa kesulitan saat hendak menaikkan keledai tersebut dibahunya, tapi akhirnya dia melakukannya, dan mulai berjalan perlahan pulang kerumah dengan hasilnya. Ketika dalam perjalanan sesuatu terjadi, ada seorang putri satu-satunya yang kaya rayaa, seorang gadis cantik, tapi tuli dan bisu. Selama hidupnya ia tak pernah tertawa, dan dokter mengatakan dia tidak akan berbicara sampai seseorang bisa membuatnya tertawa.sang gadis ini kebetulan melihat keluar dari jendela saat Jack lewat dengan keledai di pundaknya, dengan kaki mencuat di udara, dengan pemandangan yang begitu lucu dan aneh membuat ia tertawa terbahak-bahak, dan saat itu ia bisa berbicara dan mendengar. Ayahnya sangat gembira, dan memenuhi janjinya dengan menikahkannya dengan si pemalas Jack, yang demikian membuatnya menjadi seorang pria kaya. Mereka tinggal di sebuah rumah besar, dan ibu Jack tinggal dengan mereka dalam kebahagiaan besar sampai dia meninggal.

Teknologi-Technology

Perkembangan Komputer

Komputer pertama kali digagas pada tahun 1822 yang awalnya hanya digunakan untuk sebagai alat penghitung cepat yang disebut difference engine. Setelah itu pada tahun 1833 Charles Babbage mengembangkan lagi difference engine dengan konsep yang lebih mendalam dan umum.  Mesin ini dapat melaksanakan kalkulasi apa saja, sehingga mesin inilah yang untuk pertama kali dikenal sebagai general purpose digital komputer yang disebut sebagai analytical engine.

Pada tahun 1937, Prof. Howard Aikem, seorang mulai merancang dan mengembangkan pembuatan sebuah komputer yang dapat melakukan operasi aritmatika dan logika secara otomatis. Komputer yang dirancang Prof Howard mulanya hanya mekanik elektronik. Kemudian dengan bantuan perusahaan IBM, yaitu perusahaan elektronik yang sekarang juga perusahaan komputer pada tahun 1944, komputer rancangannya tersebut terselesaikan secara elektronik. Komputer tersebut diberi nama “Harvard Mark I Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator (ASCC)”. Cukup rumit memang, namun itulah cikal bakal dari komputer itu sendiri.

Pada tahun 1948, mulailah ditemukannya transistor, inilah cikal bakal semua barang elektronik mempunyai ukuran yang kecil secara drastis. Tak terkecuali dengan komputer yang notabennya sebelumnya memiliki ukuran yang super besar. Pada tahun 1956 transistor mulai digunakan pada komputer yang membuat komputer bekerja lebih cepat, hemat, dan kecil. Mulailah berbagai perusahaan besar menggunakan komputer sebagai penunjang memproses informasi keuangan.

Pada tahun 1958 Jack Kilby mengembangkan sirkuit terintegrasi (IC : integrated circuit). IC mengkombinasikan tiga komponen elektronik dalam sebuah piringan silikon kecil yang terbuat dari pasir kuarsa. Pada ilmuwan kemudian berhasil memasukkan lebih banyak komponen-komponen ke dalam suatu chip tunggal yang disebut semikonduktor. Hasilnya adalah komputer semakin kecil, karena beberapa fungsi komponen telah diambil alih oleh IC.

Komputer semakin tahun semakin berkembang, dan akhirnya terbentuklah yang namanya procesor yang ditemukan pada tahun 1971. Setelah kejadian itu, komputer menjadi semakin kecil, karena banyak sekali komponen yang dijadikan satu dan perannya digantikan oleh procesor. Setelah itu, seiring dengan perkembangan komputer, ditemukanlah LAN untuk efisiensi pengiriman data, berbagi piranti, atau yang lainnya. Setelah banyak berkembang dari tahun ke tahun, sekarang komputer menjadi seperti yang kita lihat saat ini.

 Source: http://www.aingindra.com/artikel-teknologi-mengenai-perkembangan-komputer.html

Development of the Computer

 Computers were first conceived in 1822, originally only used for as a counter quickly called a difference engine. After that in 1833 Charles Babbage’s difference engine develops further with the concept of a more profound and general. This machine can carry out any calculations, so that the machine for the first time this is known as general purpose digital computer called the analytical engine.

 In 1937, Prof. Howard Aikem, a start designing and developing the production of a computer that can perform arithmetic and logic operations automatically. Computer designed Prof Howard initially only mechanical electronics. Then with the help of IBM company, is the electronics company is now also a computer company in 1944, the computer design is resolved electronically. The computer named “Harvard Mark I Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC)”. Quite complicated indeed, but that was the forerunner of the computer itself.

 In 1948, start the discovery of the transistor, this is the forerunner of all electronic goods having a small size drastically. No exception with computer that previously had a super large size. In 1956 the transistor began to be used on computers that make computers work faster, saving, and small. Start big companies use computers as a supporting process financial information.

In 1958 Jack Kilby developed the integrated circuit (IC: integrated circuit). IC combined three electronic components onto a small silicon disc made of quartz sand. Scientists later managed to fit more components into a single chip, called a semiconductor. The result is a smaller computer, because some components function has been taken over by the IC.

 Computers are increasingly growing year, and eventually formed the name of the processor that is found in 1971. After the incident, computers become smaller, because many components are put together and its role was replaced by processors. After that, along with the development of computer, found LAN for data transmission efficiency, sharing devices, or others. After expanding from year to year, now the computer into what we see today.

Source: https://translate.google.com

Terjemahan sendiri

Computer Development

           In 1822, the first computer was appear initially used for fast counters called difference engine. After that in 1833 Charles Babbage’s develops again the difference engine with the concept more deep and general. This machine can implement any calculations, so this machine for the first time is known as general purpose digital computer that called the analytical engine.

 In 1937, Prof. Howard Aikem, began create the designed and developed the production of  computer that can perform arithmetic and logic operations automatically. Computer designed by Prof Howard initially only mechanical electronics. Then in 1944, with the help of IBM company that is the electronics company and now also a computer company, the computer design is resolved electronically. The computer named “Harvard Mark I Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC)”. Half complicated, but that was the forerunner of the computer itself.

 In 1948, the transistor was found, this is the forerunner of all electronic goods having a small size drastically. No exception that computer had a super large size previously. In 1956 the transistor began to be used on computers that make computers work faster, saving, and small. Start big companies use computers as a supporting process financial information.

 In 1958, Jack Kilby developed the integrated circuit (IC: integrated circuit). IC combined of three electronic components onto a small silicon disc made of quartz sand. Scientists later managed to fit more components into a single chip, called a semiconductor. The result is a smaller computer, because some components function has been transfer by IC.

Computers are increasingly year to year, and finally formed a processor that found in 1971. After that, computers become smaller, because many components are put together and its role was replaced by processors. then, along with the development of computer, found by LAN for data transmission efficiency, sharing devices, or others. After much evolve from year to year, now the computer to be as that we see now.

 

Idiom

Definition of Idiom

The term refers to a set expression or a phrase comprising two or more words. An interesting fact regarding the device is that the expression is not interpreted literally. The phrase is understood as to mean something quite different from what individual words of the phrase would imply. Alternatively, it can be said that the phrase is interpreted in a figurative sense. Further, idioms vary in different cultures and countries.

Simple Definition of Idiom:

  • an expression that cannot be understood from the meanings of its separate words but that has a separate meaning of its own
  • a form of a language that is spoken in a particular area and that uses some of its own words, grammar, and pronunciations
  • a style or form of expression that is characteristic of a particular person, type of art, etc.

Idiom in Bahasa Indonesia

Idiom atau ungkapan adalah suatu gabungan kata, yang merupakan penggalan kalimat yang memiliki arti tersendiri. atau kelompok kata yang menyatakan makna kiasan.

Idiom Examples

  • “Every cloud has its silver lining but it is sometimes a little difficult to get it to the mint.”

The statement quoted above uses “silver lining” as an idiom which means some suspicious moment is lurking behind the cloud or the difficult time.

  • “American idioms drive me up the hall!”

Here, the word “idioms” is used as an idiom.

  • “I worked the graveyard shift with old people, which was really demoralizing, because the old people didn’t have a chance in hell of ever getting out.”

In the extract quoted above, “graveyard shift” is employed as an idiom.

  • Kirk: If we play our cards right, we may be able to find out when those whales are being released.
    Spock: How will playing cards help?
    (Captain James T. Kirk and Spock in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, 1986)

Here, “if we play our cards right” means “if we avail our opportunities rightly”.

Idiom Example in Newspaper

One newspaper reports that a politician has criticized doctors as a group, claiming that they do not understand how their patients suffer when they wait a long time to be treated. Doctors, the politician complains, are ‘out of touch’.  To be out of touch is to not have the most recent information about a subject or a situation. On a different page, the same newspaper complains that a large sum of public money (330 thousand pounds) has been spent on equipment that will never be used. ‘£330k down the drain!’ reads the headline. Money down the drain (informal) is money wasted.

Another newspaper reports that a request by many people to stop a building from being destroyed has ‘fallen on deaf ears’. A request or warning that falls on deaf ears is not listened to. On the same page, the newspaper writes that the people of one country have ‘taken to the streets’. When people take to the streets, they show that they are against something by going to a public place and shouting, often while carrying signs. Elsewhere, the newspaper promises that cures for some diseases are ‘on the horizon.’meaning that they are likely to happen soon.

In the gossip pages of a tabloid newspaper, it is reported that an actor has said something very negative about a more famous actor. ‘Sounds like sour grapes’, says the newspaper. If you describe one person’s criticism of another person as sour grapes, you mean that they are only angry because the person they have criticized has something that they want. In the sports pages of the same paper, there is a report of a cricket match. It is claimed that the winning side are now ‘sitting pretty’. To be sitting pretty is to be in a good situation. (Often, it relates to money, though not in this case.)

Idiom Example in Bahasa Indonesia

  • Ibu berpesan bahwa jika kita sedang bekerja, maka lakukanlah dengan sungguh-sungguh. Karena jika melakukan dengan setengah hati maka akan menjadi beban hidup (tak serius).
  • Kembar triplet yang berasal dari Korea itu sedang naik daun melalui program superman return (populer).
  • Jangan biarkan kantungmu bocor, ingatlah bulan depan kau akan menikah maka kau harus menutupi kantongmu rapat-rapat (boros; hemat).
  • Semenjak kematian anaknya, Nenek Markonah hidup sebatang kara, hanya Murti – lah satu-satunya anak miliknya karena suaminya telah lama meninggal (seorang diri).
  • Pemilu telah usai, pendukung dua kubu masih sering adu mulut (debat).
  • Pertemuan empat mata antara kedua sahabat yang telah lama tidak berjumpa dipenuhi dengan canda dan tawa (pertemuan antara dua orang)

Tabel Arti dan Contoh Kalimat Idiom Bahasa Inggris

a

Source:

https://dictionaryblog.cambridge.org/2015/08/26/do-you-have-what-it-takes-everyday-idioms-in-newspapers/

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/idiom

http://literarydevices.net/idiom/

http://www.kelasindonesia.com/2015/06/pengertian-dan-contoh-idiom-atau-ungkapan.html

http://ganzmeruntuguntur.blogspot.co.id/2013/09/idiom-dalam-bahasa-indonesia.html

http://www.wordsmile.com/contoh-kalimat-idiom-bahasa-inggris-artinya

Penerjemahan Berbantuan Komputer_1

INDONESIAN CULTURE; ARTS AND TRADITIONS

Indonesia is culturally rich. Indonesian art and culture are intertwined with religion and age-old traditions from the time of early migrants with Western thoughts brought by Portuguese traders and Dutch colonists. The basic principles which guide life include the concepts of mutual assistance or “gotong royong” and consultations or “musyawarah” to arrive at a consensus or “mufakat” Derived from rural life, this system is still very much in use in community life throughout the country.

Though the legal system is based on the old Dutch penal code, social life as well as the rites of passage are founded on customary or “adat” law which differs from area to area. “Adat” law has a binding impact on Indonesian life and it may be concluded that this law has been instrumental in maintaining equal rights for women in the community. Religious influences on the community are variously evident from island to island.

Intertwined with religion and age-old traditions from the time of early migrants the art and culture of Indonesia is rich in itself with Western thoughts brought by Portuguese traders and Dutch colonists. The art and culture of Indonesia has been shaped around its hundreds of ethnic groups, each with cultural differences that have shifted over the centuries. Modern-day Indonesian culture is a fusion of cultural aspects from Arabic, Chinese, Malay and European sources. Indonesian art and culture has also been influenced from the ancient trading routes between the Far East and the Middle East leading to many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Islam.

Source : http://indonesia.gr/indonesian-culture-arts-and-traditions/#

Terjemahan melalui google translate.

 

BUDAYA INDONESIA; SENI DAN TRADISI

Indonesia kaya budaya. seni dan budaya Indonesia yang terkait dengan agama dan kuno tradisi dari waktu migran awal dengan pikiran Barat yang dibawa oleh pedagang Portugis dan penjajah Belanda. Prinsip-prinsip dasar yang memandu kehidupan meliputi konsep saling membantu atau “gotong royong” dan konsultasi atau “musyawarah” untuk mencapai konsensus atau “mufakat” Berasal dari kehidupan pedesaan, sistem ini masih sangat banyak di gunakan dalam kehidupan masyarakat di seluruh negara.

Meskipun sistem hukum didasarkan pada hukum pidana Belanda tua, kehidupan sosial serta Ritus peralihan yang didirikan pada “adat” hukum adat atau yang berbeda dari daerah ke daerah. “Adat” hukum memiliki dampak mengikat kehidupan Indonesia dan dapat disimpulkan bahwa hukum ini telah berperan dalam menjaga hak-hak yang sama bagi perempuan di masyarakat. pengaruh agama terhadap masyarakat yang beragam terlihat dari pulau ke pulau.

Terkait dengan agama dan kuno tradisi dari waktu migran awal seni dan budaya Indonesia kaya sendiri dengan pikiran Barat yang dibawa oleh pedagang Portugis dan penjajah Belanda. Seni dan budaya Indonesia telah dibentuk sekitar ratusan kelompok etnis, masing-masing dengan perbedaan budaya yang telah bergeser selama berabad-abad. Modern budaya Indonesia merupakan perpaduan dari aspek budaya dari bahasa Arab, Cina, Melayu dan sumber-sumber Eropa. seni dan budaya Indonesia juga telah dipengaruhi dari rute perdagangan kuno antara Timur Jauh dan Timur Tengah menyebabkan banyak praktik budaya yang sangat dipengaruhi oleh banyak agama, termasuk Hindu, Buddha, Konghucu dan Islam.

Source : https://translate.google.co.id/#en/id/INDONESIAN%20CULTURE%3B%20ARTS%20AND%20TRADITIONS

Terjemahan sendiri.

BUDAYA INDONESIA; SENI DAN TRADISI

 

Indonesia kaya akan budaya. Seni dan budaya di Indonesia saling berkaitan dengan agama dan tradisi nenek moyang sejak kedatangan para pedagang Portugis dan penjajah Belanda. Prinsip dasar yang menjadi pedoman dalam kehidupan yaitu saling membantu atau “gotong royong” dan konsultasi atau “musyawarah” untuk mencapai kesepakatan atau “mufakat” yang berasal dari kehidupan di pedesaan, sistem ini masih sangat banyak digunakan oleh masyarakat di seluruh negara.

Walaupun sistem hukum yang sah ini didasari oleh hukum pidana Belanda jaman dulu, kehidupan sosial serta Ritus peralihan yang didirikan berdasar “adat” hukum adat atau yang berbeda dari setiap daerah. “Adat” hukum memiliki dampak yang mengikat bagi kehidupan Indonesia dan dapat disimpulkan bahwa hukum ini telah berperan dalam menjaga hak-hak yang sama bagi perempuan di masyarakat. pengaruh agama terhadap masyarakat yang beragam terlihat jelas dari pulau ke pulau.

Terkait dengan agama dan tradisi nenek moyang dari waktu pedagang Portugis dan penjajah Belanda datang seni dan budaya Indonesia memiliki kekaya tersendiri. Seni dan budaya Indonesia telah dibentuk sekitar ratusan kelompok etnis, masing-masing dengan perbedaan budaya yang telah bergeser selama berabad-abad. Budaya modern di Indonesia merupakan perpaduan dari aspek budaya dari bangsa Arab, Cina, Melayu dan juga Eropa. seni dan budaya Indonesia juga telah dipengaruhi oleh rute perdagangan kuno antara Timur jauh dan Timur Tengah menyebabkan banyak praktik budaya yang sangat dipengaruhi oleh banyak agama, termasuk Hindu, Buddha, Konghucu dan Islam.

 

MODAL AUXILIARIES – TASK3

MODAL AUXILIARIES

AUXILIARY VERBS are known as helping verbs because adding an auxiliary verb to a MAIN VERB helps the main verb convey additional information. The most common auxiliary verbs are forms of be, have, and do.

 

MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS are one type of auxiliary verb. They include:

Can, Could, May, Might, Must, Shall, Should, Ought to, Will, Would

They are Auxiliary verbs that provide additional and specific meaning to the main verb of the sentence.

How do we use modals?

e.g. Mary could play the piano

They do not accept conjugation

They do not need other auxiliary verbs

I will be able to work late next Monday. [Will be able is the future tense; will here is not a modal.]

Adding not between a modal and the MAIN VERB makes the CLAUSE negative:

We cannot work late tonight; I could not work late last night; I will not

be able to work late next Monday.

 

ALERT: You will often see negative forms of modals turned into

CONTRACTIONS: can’t, couldn’t, won’t, wouldn’t, and others. Because contractions

are considered informal usage by some instructors, avoid them in ACADEMIC WRITING.

 

  • Conveying necessity

 

The modals must and have to convey a need to do something. Both must and have to are followed by the simple form of the main verb. In the present tense, have to changes form to agree with its subject.

 

e.g.      You must leave before midnight.

She has to leave when I leave.

In the past tense, must is never used to express necessity. Instead, use had to.

 

How do I convey ability, necessity, advisability, possibility, and probability? 44a

 

PRESENT TENSE We must study today. We have to study today.

PAST TENSE We had to [not must] take a test yesterday.

 

The negative forms of must and have to also have different meanings. Must not conveys that something is forbidden; do not have to conveys that something is not necessary.

 

You must not sit there. [Sitting there is forbidden.]

You do not have to sit there. [Sitting there is not necessary.]

 

  • Conveying advisability or the notion of a good idea

 

The modals should and ought to express the idea that doing the action of the main verb is advisable or is a good idea.

You should go to class tomorrow morning.

In the past tense, should and ought to convey regret or knowing something through hindsight. They mean that good advice was not taken.

 

You should have gone to class yesterday.

I ought to have called my sister yesterday.

 

The modal had better delivers the meaning of good advice or warning or threat. It does not change form for tense.

 

You had better see the doctor before your cough gets worse.

Need to is often used to express strong advice, too. Its past-tense form is needed to.

You need to take better care of yourself. You needed to listen.

 

  • Conveying possibility

 

The modals may, might, and could can be used to convey an idea of possibility or likelihood.

We may become hungry before long.

 

We could eat lunch at the diner next door.

For the past-tense form, use may, might, and could, followed by have and the past participle of the main verb.

 

I could have studied French in high school, but I studied Spanish instead.

 

  • Conveying probability

 

In addition to conveying the idea of necessity, the modal must can also convey probability or likelihood. It means that a well-informed guess is being made.

e.g. Marisa must be a talented actress. She has been chosen to play the lead role in the school play.

  • Can

We use can to:

  1. talk about possibility and ability
  2. make requests
  3. ask for or give permission

e.g. can you speak any foreign language?

 

  • Could

could: Past Possibility or Ability

could: Requests

Be able to

 

We use could especially with these verbs:

See                  hear                 smell                taste                 feel                  remember

e.g. when we went into the house, we could smell burning.

We also use could to say that someone had the general ability to do something:

e.g. when tom was 16, he could run 100 meters in 11 seconds.

 

The past of could (do) is could have (done). We use could have to say that we had the ability or the opportunity to do something but did not do it.

e.g. we didn’t go out last night. We could have gone to the cinema but we decided to stay at home. (we had opportunity to go out but we didn’t)

 

  • May & Might

May

Talking about things that can happen in certain situations

 

Might

Saying that something was possible, but did not actually happen

Stucture:

Be in his office

I/you/he (etc.)        may/might       (not)    Be having/waiting etc.

Know/have/do etc.

  • Will
  1. Talking about the present, future or past with certainty
  2. Making a decision
  3. Making a semi-formal request
  4. Insistence; habitual behavior
  5. Making a promise or a threat

 

  • Shall
  1. Making offers
  2. Making suggestions
  3. Duty

 

  • Would

 

Polite requests and offers (a ‘softer’ form of will)

In conditionals, to indicate ‘distance from reality’: imagined, unreal, impossible situations

After ‘wish’, to show regret or irritation over someone (or something’s) refusal or insistence on doing something (present or future)

 

Would

  1. Talking about past habits (similiar meaning to used to)
  2. Future in the past
  3. After ‘wish’, to show regret or irritation over someone (or something’s) refusal or insistence on doing something (present or future)

 

  • Must
  1. Necessity and obligation
  2. Strong advice and invitations
  3. Saying you think something is certain

 

  • Should
  1. Giving advice

Obligation: weak form of must

Things which didn’t or may/may not have happened

 

  • Ought to
    Ought to usually has the same meaning as should, particularly in affirmative statements in the present:

e.g. You should/ought to get your hair cut.

 

Should is much more common (and easier to say!), so if you’re not sure, use should.

 

  • Used to

The auxiliary verb construction used to is used to express an action that took place in the past, perhaps customarily, but now that action no longer customarily takes place:

We used to take long vacation trips with the whole family.

 

Used to can also be used to convey the sense of being accustomed to or familiar with something:

e.g. The tire factory down the road really stinks, but we’re used to it by now

I like these old sneakers; I’m used to them.

Used to is best reserved for colloquial usage; it has no place in formal or academic text.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: google and English Grammar book

DIRECT AND INDIRECT – TASK4

Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct and indirect speech can be a source of confusion for English learners. Let’s first define the terms, then look at how to talk about what someone said, and how to convert speech from direct to indirect or vice-versa.

You can answer the question What did he say? in two ways:

  • by repeating the words spoken (direct speech)
  • by reporting the words spoken (indirect or reported speech).

Direct Speech

Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between quotation marks (” “) and there is no change in these words. We may be reporting something that’s being said NOW (for example a telephone conversation), or telling someone later about a previous conversation.

Examples

  • She says, “What time will you be home?”
  • She said, “What time will you be home?” and I said, “I don’t know! “
  • “There’s a fly in my soup!” screamed Simone.
  • John said, “There’s an elephant outside the window.”

Indirect Speech

Reported or indirect speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normally change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs like ‘say’, ‘tell’, ‘ask’, and we may use the word ‘that’ to introduce the reported words. Inverted commas are not used.

She said, “I saw him.” (direct speech) = She said that she had seen him. (indirect speech)

‘That’ may be omitted:
She told him that she was happy. = She told him she was happy.

‘Say’ and ‘tell’

Use ‘say’ when there is no indirect object:
He said that he was tired.

Always use ‘tell’ when you say who was being spoken to (i.e. with an indirect object):
He told me that he was tired.

‘Talk’ and ‘speak’

Use these verbs to describe the action of communicating:
He talked to us.
She was speaking on the telephone.

Use these verbs with ‘about’ to refer to what was said:
He talked (to us) about his parents.

Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a statement, question or request.

When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • tense
  • place and time expression

1- Pronouns

In reported speech, you often have to change the pronoun depending on who says what.

Example:

She says, “My dad likes roast chicken.” – She says that her dad likes roast chicken.

2- Tenses

  • If the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in reported speech.
  • If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in reported speech.
Direct speech Reported speech
(no backshift) “I write poems.” He says that he writes poems.
(backshift) “I write poems.” He said that he wrote poems.

No backshift

Do not change the tense if the introductory clause is in a present tense (e. g. He says). Note, however, that you might have to change the form of the present tense verb (3rd person singular).

Example:
He says, “I write poems.” – He says that he writes English.

Backshift

You must change the tense if the introductory clause is in a past tense (e. g. He said).

Example:
He said, “I am happy.” – He said that he was happy.

 

STATEMENT

If we want to say what other people said, thought or felt, we can use the direct and indirect speech (reported speech).

Perub Direct to  Indirect Speech :

1.        To be & Auxiliary Verbs

Direct                                       Indirect

Am/is/are                                was/were

Shall/will                                should/would

Can                                           could

May                                          might

Must

Have/has to                              had to

Ought to

2.        Time & Place (keterangan waktu & tempat)

Direct                                       Indirect

now                                 –           then

tomorrow                         –           the following day

next week                        –           the following week

tonight                             –           that night

today                               –           that day

yesterday                         –           the day before

last night                          –           the night before

last week                         –           the week before,

the precious week

here                                  –           there

this                                   –           that

these                                –           those

 

3.        Tenses

Direct                                       Indirect

Simple present                   –        simple past

Simple past

–        past perfect

Present perfect

Present continous              –        past continous

Present perfect continous  –        past perfect continous

Simple future                     –        past future

 

I.        STATEMENT

In Indirect Statement we use ‘that’ as connection between introduce phrase and   reported words. The example of Introduce phrase :

 

He said

He said to me                    that + reported words

He told me

 

e.g  – Mary told her friends “I have been to Bali twice.”

– Mary told her friends that she had been to Bali twice.

 

–   Father said “I am going out of town tomorrow”

–   Father said that he was going out of town the following day.

 

–   Mary told John “my father warned me last night”

–   Mary told John that her father had arned her the night before.

 

–   My sister said to me “I don’t like tennis”

–   My sister said to me that she didn’t like tennis.

 

–   Tom said “I didn’t go to school this morning”

–   Tom said that he hadn’t gone to school that morning.

 

If  The introduce phrase in form simple present tense, the reported speech won’t change .

e.g  – John says “I will go to Bandung tomorrow”

– John says that he will go to Bandung tomorrow

 

–   Mary says “I have seen that film”

–   Mary says that she has seen that film.

 

–   My brother says “I met Tom at the party last night”

–   My brother says that he met Tom at the party last night.

 

–   Tom says “I don’t like English”

–   Tom says that he don’t like English.

II.   QUESTION

If direct question use question phrase like : Where, When, Why, What, Who, How, dll, so those phrases use as connection in reported speech. Question reported change to be positive form.

e.g   – The man asked me : “Where do you live ?”

– The man asked me where I lived.

 

–  John asked Mary : “Why do you get angry with me ?”

–  John asked Mary why she got angry with him.

 

–  I asked him : “When did you get back from your trip ?”

–  I asked him when he had got back from his trip.

 

–  He asked me : “How will you go there ?”

–  He asked me how I would go there.

 

–  John asked the girl : “What is your name ?”

–  John asked the girl what her name was.

If  The direct question doesn’t use question phrase, and only question in form   “Yes & No Question”, so we use phrases  if, whether (jika, apakah) as connection between introduce phrase and question reported.

 

e.g   – The boy asked John : “Does Mary live near  here?”

– The boy asked John if Mary lived near there.

 

–  The teacher asked her : “Have you finish your homework ?”

–  The teacher asked her if he had finished her homework.

 

–  Mary asked me : “Did you she John at the party the night before.

–  Mary asked me whether I had seen John at the party the night before.

 

–  We asked them : “Will you go to the movie with us tonight ?”

–  We asked them whether they would go to the movie with us that night.

 

–  Mother asked John : “Are you going to marry her ?”

–  Mother asked John if he was going to marry her.

Note :    Baik if maupun whether dapat digunakan bergantian

 

  III.      Imperative or Order

Command dibagi dalam 2 (dua) bagian yaitu :

  1. Positive

In positive order we add to in front of command phrase,as connected between introduce and command which reported.Reported phrase in form:

to + infinitive

He asked me

He told me

e.g   – He asked me “Open your book”

– He asked me to open my book.

–  Mary told me “Stop talking to Jane”

–  Mary told me to stop talking to Jane.

–  Mother asked John “Pay attention to what I say”

–  Mother asked John to pay attention to what she says.

 

–  John told Mary “Wait until I come”

–  John told Mary to wait until he comes.

 

–  The teacher said to the students “Be quiet while I am talking”

–  The teacher told the students to be quiet while she is talking.

2.      Negative

In negative command we add not to in front commad which  reported.

e.g   – Mary told John “Don’t wait for me”

– Mary told John not to wait for her.

–  I told him “Don’t mention it to anyone”

–  I told him not to mention it to anyone.

 

–  Father asked her “Don’t go there alone”

–  Father asked her not to go there alone.

\

–  Ira asked Tom “Don’t come to my house again”

–  Ira asked tom not to come to her house again.

 

–  Mothers asked John “Don’t smoke too much”

–  Mother asked John not to smoke too much.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source:

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-reported-speech.php

https://sabrinanovianti.wordpress.com/2013/03/24/direct-and-indirect-speech/

Conditional Sentences

Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences.

1.     Conditional sentences – type I

·         Use

It is possible to fulfil a condition which is given in the if-clause.

 ·         Form

if clause main clause
Simple Present will-future
infinitive
Modal + infinitive

·         Examples

if clause main clause
If I study, I will pass the exams.
If you see John tonight, tell him to e-mail me.
If Ben gets up early, he can catch the bus.

 The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

if clause main clause
If I study, I will pass the exams.
main clause if clause
I will pass the exams if I study.

2.     Conditional sentences – type II

·         Use

It is theoretically possible to fulfil a condition which is given in the if-clause.

 ·         Form

if clause main clause
Simple Past would + infinitive
could + infinitive
might + infinitive

·         Examples

if clause main clause
If I studied, I would pass the exams.
If I studied, I could pass the exams.
If I studied, I might pass the exams.

 

The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

if clause main clause
If I studied, I would pass the exams.
main clause if clause
I would pass the exams if I studied.

3.     Conditional sentences – type III

·         Use

It is impossible to fulfil a condition which is given in the if-clause.

·         Form

if clause main clause
Past Perfect would + have + past participle
could + have + past participle
might + have + past participle

·         Examples

if clause main clause
If I had studied, I would have passed the exams.
If I had studied, I could have passed the exams.
If I had studied, I might have passed the exams.

 

The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

if clause main clause
If I had studied, I would have passed the exams.
main clause if clause
I would have passed the exams if I had studied.

Examples (affirmative and negative sentences)

type   Examples
    long forms short/contracted forms
I + If I study, I will pass the exam. If I study, I’ll pass the exam.
If I study, I will not fail the exam.
If I do not study, I will fail the exam.
If I study, I won’t fail the exam.
If I don’t study, I’ll fail the exam.
II + If I studied, I would pass the exam. If I studied, I’d pass the exam.
If I studied, I would not fail the exam.
If I did not study, I would fail the exam.
If I studied, I wouldn’t fail the exam.
If I didn’t study, I’d fail the exam.
III + If I had studied, I would have passed the exam. If I’d studied, I’d have passed the exam.
If I had studied, I would not have failed the exam.
If I had not studied, I would have failed the exam.
If I’d studied, I wouldn’t have failed the exam.
If I hadn’t studied, I’d have failed the exam.

 

Uses of the Conditional

  1. First conditional
    1. Nature: Open condition, what is said in the condition is possible.
    2. Time: This condition refers either to present or to future time.
      e.g. If he is late, we will have to go without him.
      If my mother knows about this, we are in serious trouble.
  2. Second conditional
    1. Nature: unreal (impossible) or improbable situations.
    2. Time: present; the TENSE is past, but we are talking about the present, now.
      e.g. If I knew her name, I would tell you.
      If I were you, I would tell my father.
      Compare: If I become president, I will change the social security system. (Said by a presidential candidate)
      If I became president, I would change the social security system. (Said by a schoolboy: improbable)
      If we win this match, we are qualified for the semifinals.
      If I won a million pounds, I would stop teaching. (improbable)
  3. Third conditional
    1. Nature: unreal
    2. Time: Past (so we are talking about a situation that was not so in the past.)
      e.g. If you had warned me, I would not have told your father about that party.(But you didn’t, and I have).

Excercises:

gr

Source:

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/if.htm

http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conditional2.htmhttp://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conditional2.htm

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exercises?04